In colloquial use, the term race designates a group of people based on their appearance and culture. Recently, new technologies such as improved genome sequencing and microarrays are generating huge quantities of genomic information. And our cells have taken the evolutionary strategy, said Douglas Wallace of the University of California–Irvine, of creating a differentiation multicellularity, while inside each of these individuals there is a colony of bacteria, known as mitochondria. East Mediterr Health J. The desire of overcoming normal human capacities and the transformation to an almost ‘perfect’ form has been part of the history of civilization, extending from arts and religion to philosophy. By comparing its characteristics with those of known viruses, researchers were able to quickly identify the novel SARS virus as a coronavirus (WHO 2003). Hood, E., Jenkins, K.P. STUDY. Paradoxically, some diseases are associated with socially defined races, such as Tay–Sachs disease in the Ashkenazi Jews, making it necessary to take into account these social groupings in conducting research. The rabbit population exploded, said Antia, and changed the ecology of the area by eating much of the native vegetation. The underlying argument is straightforward: If our body evolved to process certain kinds of food sources, then this is the diet that is likely to provide us with the best opportunity to live a healthy life. Even more recently, increases in expected life span and change in diets have led to a rise in the frequency of chronic diseases (Armelagos et al. Evolutionary medicine (EM), also known as Darwinian medicine,3 is a new approach providing a useful framework for understanding modern diseases from an evolutionary perspective. Humans have been practicing medicine for over a million years. 2007). Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. This commentary will provide general ethical considerations on human enhancement, and within the several forms of so-called human biomedical enhancement, it will focus on genetic engineering, particularly on germline (heritable) genetic interventions and on the insights evolutionary biology can provide in rationalizing its likely impact. For instance, the widespread availability of alcohol and other drugs was almost certainly not a feature of our ancestral environments but because drugs act on evolved motivational and emotional systems, many individuals pursue the use of drugs with detrimental effects for their health and for society (Durrant, Adamson, Todd, & Sellman, 2009). First discovered in the middle of the 1970's researchers were, have led to the development of different technologies. Insights from Darwinian Medicine. In their vision, so far, humans have largely worked to control and shape their exterior environments (niche construction) but with new technologies (e.g. But you want to help the patient to survive a tremendous amount of poison. Application of genetics and genomics to the drug discovery and development process, as well as to medical practice, will provide help, but no simple solutions, and will not be a panacea. When comparing human evolution to human genetic enhancement, an acceptable position could be to consider ethically sound those interventions that could be replicated naturally by evolution, as in the case of the CCR5 gene. Britigan BE. All of the changes have ultimately resulted from mutations, which occur at the gene level. It infuses traditional medical thinking, which primarily centers on proximate explanations and reductionist approaches, with evolutionary concepts to offer ultimate explanations for why disease may occur, thus providing a more complete framework for understanding the origins of disease risk.

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