Japan’s Purple Machine Codes and ciphers have played many crucial roles in the past 3000 years, protecting the secrets of caesars and laymen. By the fall of 1941, U.S. code breakers had a pretty good idea as to what the Japanese government was thinking and planning regarding a potential conflict with the United States. As they sought a breakthrough, the cryptanalysts spent much of their time trying to match possible plaintext–guesses, often educated, as to the cipher-text, or encoded language and numbers. This was in March 1937, six months before American diplomats began reporting on it. The joint congressional committee that investigated the attack in 1945 and 1946 put the question sharply: ‘Why with some of the finest intelligence available in our history, with the almost certain knowledge that war was at hand, with plans that contemplated the precise type of attack that was executed by Japan on the morning of December 7–Why was it possible for a Pearl Harbor to occur?’. American code-breakers performed prodigies, giving remarkable insight into Japanese thinking. He was succeeded by Lieutenant Joseph J. Rochefort, one of the first American naval officers to have studied Japanese in Japan. In 1940, subordinates of his led by Frank Rowlett broke In Hawaii, the Navy’s top intelligence code breaker, Joseph Rochefort—head of the Combat Intelligence Unit of the 14th Naval District in Pearl Harbor and Station Hypo, a U.S. monitoring unit that watched Japanese naval movements—was alerted to the Winds message.

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). arrogant,” said Donald Goldstein, a professor at the University of Pittsburgh and co-author of “At Dawn We Slept: The Untold Story of Pearl Harbor.” “It’s very possible they could have broken our code, so why shouldn’t they have?”. Soon they were able to read the code, which consisted of strings of five digits. The Winds message was then translated by Lt. Cmdr. Later it provided part of the text of the treaty. Despite only a rudimentary knowledge of Japanese, Yardley and his associates cracked Japanese diplomatic codes. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Minohara knew he was on to something important: For decades it was widely believed that Japan, then a developing country with a fierce rivalry between its army and navy, hadn’t been up to measure when it came to code-breaking, particularly the documents of the Americans. Thus, for example, the string 97850 meant submarine, although because JN–25 was really a cipher, the cryptanalyst had to subtract a value from the string of digits to arrive at the correct meaning.



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